Above: MRV-3 SERIES 100 passenger single-body hydrogen powered tram
Of course, it is horses for courses, OHL may be a better solution depending on local circumstances but the cost of electrolytic hydrogen does not seem to rule it out per se.
Fri, 14 Jan, 21:13
First of all, for the Coast Futura project, we used the MRV-3 because we
could truck it intact.
We also make the MRV-4:
Secondly, there are many site-specific factors that affect consumption so I
will use general figures from actual operation (not theory). ( my emphasis – DA)
TIG/m propulsion is Battery-Dominant. The energy requirement for a
particular daily duty cycle is calculated in these percentages; Battery =
60%, Regenerative braking = 20%, H²gas = 20% . The Fuel cell is only called
upon to keep the Battery System within a predetermined state of charge. In
other words, the fuel cell may or may not be called upon depending on the
conditions (hours of operation, passenger loads, and ambient temperatures,
etc.) of a particular service day. The propulsion system components are
designed to provide 25% more energy than would be required for the
worst-case scenario on any particular site-specific operation.
On the Coast Futura Project we drove approximately 85 miles per day (all
seats full, with full-time A/C) utilizing approximately 45% of the battery
energy. This equals approximately 1 kWh/mi. During these 10 hour passenger
service days the fuel cell was never activated by the computer because it
was not needed. We occasionally turned on the fuel cell manually to
demonstrate battery charging while in operation.
With our specific equipment at peak efficiency we expend 44kW to produce a
kg of H² @ 350 bar in the Maintenance Facility. Our Fuel Cell can generate
38 kW from a kg of H² during passenger service operations and sends this
energy to the battery system through the on-board battery charger.
I hope that is clear. Please feel free to ask any other questions.
To Dave Andrews
Cost of offshore wind CFD: 37.35/MWh = 3.75p/kwh – https://www.newpower.info/2022/07/offshore-wind-price-continues-to-fall-in-cfd-allocation-round-4/Offshore wind is now very cheap so the cost of hydrogen is also very cheap even though say 30% of the energy is lost in the electrolysis process.A further 60% may be lost in the conversion of hydrogen energy to to shaft energy in an engine.Nevertheless, whilst overall less efficient than other energy transmission techs, such as direct use of electricity and OHL, the lower overall efficiency does not in and of itself rule hydrogen used out because the final cost of the hydrogen fuel is only a small percentage of the cost of operating the vehicle.Furthermore1. The energy loss in the original electrolysis process, 30%, can be captured and used for building heating in District heating schemes.2. On the vehicle the 60% waste heat from the engine can be used in winter for vehicle heating which otherwise would require Direct electric heating.3. In the summer the engine waste heat can in principle be used for absorption chilling air-conditioning which otherwise would come from direct electricity use.Example hydrogen fuelled tram:https://bathtrams.uk/press-
release-26-aug-20-bath-to-get- futuristic-overhead-wire-free- hydrogen-tram-congestion- buster/
As ever it is a case of horses for courses and in many cases overhead wire direct electric fed trams may be the best solution but simply becuase hydroten may be expensive, this does not rule out hydrogen trams.
Chair Bath Trams
Claverton Energy Group
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From: John Daglish <email@example.com>
Date: Fri, 15 Jul 2022, 09:52
Subject: [Claverton] Offshore wind cfd